Volume 1, 2003
Vol. 1, No. 1, December 2003
Title: Adaptive Automation for Comfort and Safety
Author: Toshiyuki Inagaki (Institute of Information Sciences and Electronics, University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: Function allocation is the design decision to determine which functions are to be performed by humans and which are to be performed by machines for achieving the required system goals. This paper describes the concept of adaptive automation in which the control of functions shifts between humans and machines dynamically, depending on the situation encountered, human workload, and performance. This paper discusses design issues that are central and crucial in implementing sensible adaptive automation for advanced automobiles.
Keywords: Human-centered automation; Authority; Trust and complacency; Mode awareness; Automation surprises; Human interface; Human-computer interaction; Reliability and safety
Title: Introducing ISA to Japan: State of Research, Possibility of Acceptance and Implementation Process
Author: Shunji Taniguchi (School of Culture-Information Studies, Sugiyama Jogakuen University)
Abstract: Japanese research on ITS is not realistic and does not appear promising for accident suppression in the near future. However, one kind of speed limiting system for heavy trucks on highways has already been implemented. A similar kind of speed limiting system for all cars would be a promising method to suppress accidents. Ordinary people’s attitudes regarding ISA (Intelligent Speed Adaptation) play an important role in implementing the system in society. Many are in favor of the system while a small number oppose it strongly. The mass media could play an important part in the introduction of ISA. If the trend of public opinion was positive, ISA legislation would be easily accepted. The Swedish Government is developing research on ISA, and we should learn from that.
Keywords: ITS, ISA (Intelligent Speed Adaptation), Speed, Speed Limiter, Traffic Accident
Title: Cooperative Steering Characteristics of Driver and Lane-keeping Assistance System
Author(s): Panat Leelavansuk (Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)
Hidehisa Yoshida (Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)
Masao Nagai (Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)
Abstract: A Lane-Keeping Assistance System can be expected to use in order to reduce driver workload and assist the driver in controlling vehicle. This paper proposes a design of Lane-Keeping Assistance System that uses steering torque as a control input for cooperative steering between driver and assistance system. The cooperative steering performance is evaluated by computer simulation and experiment using driving simulator under side wind disturbance and lane-keeping on curved road. The weighting function is proposed here to vary amount of assistance level in the evaluation of the system in order to examine the cooperative steering characteristics at different assistance level.
Keywords: ITS, Lane-Keeping Assistance System, Steering Control, Driving Simulator, Cooperative Steering
Title: A Study on Reliable Intelligent Vehicle Driving System by using Features of Electric Vehicles – Lane keeping by Traction-Force-Distribution Control –
Author(s): Naohisa Hashimoto (Keio University)
Manabu Omae (Keio University)
Hiroshi Shimizu (Keio University)
Abstract: Intelligent vehicle systems, such as the automatic driving system are expected to be the solution of current traffic problems. The key of those systems is reliability. This paper investigates a possibility of improving reliability by using the features of an electric vehicle (EV). EV with two motors can generate traction forces independently at left and right wheels and can control yaw moment adequately when a steering system is broken. The turning performance is evaluated in respect to vehicle\\\’s velocity, difference of traction forces, and steering condition by simulations and experiments. It is clarified that the lane-keeping can be realized by traction-force-distribution control. A lane-keeping controller by distribution of traction forces is proposed and validated by simulations. The fruit of this study improves reliability of automatic driving and shows the EV\\\’s advantage towards future vehicle systems.
Keywords: Motion Control, Measurement and Control, Automobile, Intelligent Transport Systems, Electric Vehicle, Lateral Control, Vehicle Control, Vehicle Dynamics, Advanced Vehicle Control Safety Systems
Title: Virtual Running Tests of Automobile with Driving Simulator
Author(s): Taichi Shiiba (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science)
Yoshihiro Suda (Center for Collaborative Research, The University of Tokyo)
Yusuke Tanabe (Graduate School of the University of Tokyo)
Masaaki Onuki (Simulation & Visual Systems Group, Mitsubishi Precision Co., Ltd.)
Abstract: Virtual running tests of safety technology for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are proposed in this paper. Precise evaluation of control device can be realized by making use of the driving simulator with multibody automobile model. A closed loop test of an automobile with four wheels steering system was achieved as an example of virtual running tests, and it was shown that the performance of four wheels steering system could be examined with proposed virtual proving ground.
Keywords: Driving Simulator, Vehicle Dynamic Control, Human-Automobile System, Multibody Dynamics, Real-time Calculation
Title: Development of Pedestrian ITS: Application of Traffic Signals for Wireless Visible Light Communication System
Author(s): Y. Hayashi (Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute or Technology)
T. Fukuhara (Sunway Co., Ltd.)
A. Kuniyasu (The Nippon Signal Co., Ltd.)
M. Umeno (Department of Electronic Engineering, Chubu University)
Abstract: Traffic signals based on light emitting diode (LED) are planning to install our community on a trial basis . Those provide the communication device as well as the traffic control device. Recently, we have investigated the possibility of the wireless visible light communication (WVLC) by using LED-type pedestrian traffic lights. The information, such as a time required for a pedestrian to safely cross the street, a route, a city and so on, will be available by a portable small optical detector with a pedestrian. Our initial investigation reveals that LED-type traffic lights are considered to be a success both in terms of their effectiveness in public safety and communication tools for public support through the WVLC technology
Keywords: LED-type pedestrian traffic lights , visible light communication , Field experiments, Optical signal/noise ratio (OSNR)
Title: ITS based Dynamic Vehicle Routing and Scheduling with Real time Traffic Information
Author(s): Eiichi Taniguchi (Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University)
Masatsugu Nakanishi (Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University)
Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic vehicle routing and scheduling with time window model that incorporates real time information of travel times. The model was applied to a test road network. Results showed that the dynamic model can reduce not only total costs but also total running times of trucks compared with a forecasted model that does not use real time information on travel times. In particular the dynamic model can reduce delay penalties at customers. This cost saving was attributed to successfully changing the visiting order of customers and the traffic links used between customers to avoid any congested links based on real time information on travel times.
Keywords: Freight transport, Vehicle routing and scheduling, Travel time, Intelligent transport systems, Optimisation
Title: Effects of the Inter-Vehicle Communications on the Transmissions of Incident Information with Simulation Studies
Author(s): Shin Kato (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST))
Sadayuki Tsugawa (Department of Information Sciences, Meijo University)
Abstract: This paper presents simulation studies on the effect of the inter-vehicle communications on the incident transmission system, and investigates the relationship between the information transmission over the inter-vehicle communications and the penetration rate of the communication unit. The inter-vehicle communications with the 5.8 GHz DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) and a traffic flow based on the time headway on an expressway are modeled for the simulation. The simulation results show that the information relayed via equipped vehicles can be transmitted at the level of the practical use when the penetration rate is over 20 %.
Keywords: ITS, AVCSS, Inter-Vehicle Communications, Incident, Penetration Rate
Title: Development of the Origin-Destination Flow Estimation Method for Traffic Condition Prediction
Author(s): Hironobu Kitaoka (Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.)
Eiji Teramoto (Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.)
Hiroyuki Oneyama (National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport )
Masao Kuwahara (Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo)
Abstract: In order to predict traffic condition using traffic simulation with good accuracy, we have developed the method of estimating more accurate OD (Origin-Destination) flow by minimizing the difference between calculated and observed traffic volume. Validity of this method was checked by applying it to the prediction of traffic condition, and it was found that the accuracy of prediction was improved by this method.
Keywords: Traffic Information System, ITS, OD Estimation, Traffic Simulation
Type: Technical Note
Title: Analysis of Traffic Congestions and Route Choice Behavior Influenced by Traffic Information
Author(s): Takashi Oguchi (Dep. of Civil Eng., Faculty of Eng., Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Takayuki Satoh (Dep. of Civil Eng., Faculty of Eng., Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Masahiko Katakura (Faculty of Eng., Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Shigenori Shikata (Dep. of Civil Eng., Faculty of Eng., Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: Drivers route choice behaviour together with traffic information about traffic conditions on a road network is analysed to evaluate the effect of traffic information provided by Traveller Information System technology. One of the difficulties for executing this practical analysis is caused by interaction between the traffic conditions which result from drivers\’ behaviour and the change of drivers\’ behaviour depending on the traffic conditions. The authors show a particular example at a critical section of the Tomei Expressway westbound in Japan where the information on Variable Message Sign boards, traffic congestion, and route choice behaviour can be observed.
Keywords: Traffic Information, Route Choice Behavior, Traffic Congestion