Volume 3, 2005

Vol. 3, No. 1, November 2005

Regular papers

Number: 03-07
Type: Regular
Pages: 03-10
Title: Improvement of Reliability of Environmental Recognition on Automatic Driving System by using Data of Objects
Author(s): Naohisa Hashimoto (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)
Manabu Omae (Keio University)
Kiyoshi Komoriya (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)
Hiroshi Shimizu (Keio University)

Received: 23/04/2005
Revised: 23/07/2005, 20/09/2005
Accepted: 09/10/2005

bstract: This study proposes a method of environmental recognition by using detail position data of objects in the course such as white lines, road shape, light poles, road signs and so on. The proposed method realizes efficient detection of surrounding objects based on object’s position data. Moreover, it estimates the vehicle’s position and detects obstacles from visionary information and object position data. Experimental results show that the vehicle can continue to run under GPS-based automatic driving, even when the GPS information is not available by means of the proposed method. Also, these results show that the vehicle can detect obstacle with high probability.

Keywords: Automatic Driving System, Intelligent Vehicle, Environmental Recognition and Intelligent Transport System


Number: 03-08
Type: Regular
Pages: 11-18

Title: Evaluation on Effect of Arrival Time Information Provision using Transit Assignment Model
Author(s): Hiroshi Shimamoto (Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University)
Fumitaka Kurauchi (Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University)
Yasunori Iida (Emeritus Professor, Kyoto University)

Received: 23/04/2005
Revised: 22/07/2005
Accepted: 09/09/2005

Abstract: Using capacity-constrained transit assignment model which takes the common lines problem into account,this paper proposes the method for analyzing the effect of arrival time information while comparing with that of the other hardware improvements. The result suggests that arrival time information provision contributes to as much effect as hardware improvements for the whole network. However, the effect is different among OD pairs: information provision brings more effect at the upstream stations whereas the little effect can be shown at the downstream stations. We also find that effect does not directly contribute to the mitigation of congestion.

Keywords: Transit Assignment, Common Lines Problem, Arrival Time Information Provision


Number: 03-10
Type: Regular
Pages: 19-27
Title: Development of Photo-Realistic and Interactive Driving View Generator by Synthesizing Real Image and Artificial Geometry Model
Author(s): Shintaro Ono (Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo)
Koichi Ogawara (Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo)
Masataka Kagesawa (Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo)
Hiroshi Kawasaki (Faculty of Engineering, Saitama University)
Masaaki Onuki (Mitsubishi Precision Co., Ltd.)
Ken Honda (Chodai Co., Ltd.)
Katsushi Ikeuchi (Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo)

Received: 23/04/2005
Revised: 28/07/2005, 28/09/2005
Accepted: 12/10/2005

Abstract: In this paper, we propose an efficient and effective driving-view generation system as a module o Mixed-Reality Traffic Experiment Space, an enhanced driving/traffic simulation framework which we and our colleagues have been developing for Sustainable ITS project at the University of Tokyo. Conventional driving simulators represent their view by a set of polygon-based objects, which leads to less photo-reality and huge human cost for data construction. We introduce our image/geometry-based hybrid method to realize more photo-reality with less human cost at the same time. Images for datasets are captured from real world along a public road by video cameras mounted on our data acquisition vehicle. And the view for the system is created by synthesizing the image dataset in real-time. The paper mainly describes details on data acquisition and view rendering.

Keywords: Image-based rendering (IBR), Driving simulator, Omni-directional image, Arbitrary viewpoint image


Number: 03-12
Type: Regular
Pages: 29-38
Title: NAVIVIEW: Virtual Mirrors for Visual Assistance at Blind Intersection
Author(s): Fumihiro Taya (Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Tsukuba)
Kazuhiro Kojima (Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Tsukuba)
Akihiko Sato (Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba)
Yoshinari Kameda (Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
Yuichi Ohta (Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba)

Received: 25/04/2005
Revised: 22/07/2005, 28/09/2005
Accepted: 04/10/2005

Abstract: NaviView represents a concept of our visual assistance system that we have been working on for driving safety. We utilize surveillance cameras on roadsides in order to provide views of hazardous areas that drivers cannot see directly. In this paper, we propose a visualization method to show images of the surveillance cameras in a shape of a virtual traffic mirror. We examined three types of the virtual mirrors and we conducted experiments on a driving simulator to the other vehicle running from the blind area of a intersection.

Keywords: AHS, NaviView, Vsual assistance, Video warping, Mixed reality, Blind intersection


Number: 03-15
Type: Regular
Pages: 39-47
Title: VRCP: A MAC Protocol for Integrated Inter-Vehicle and Road to Vehicle Communications
Author(s): Kaichi Fujimura (Dept. of Electric and Electronic System Engineering, Saitama University)
Takaaki Hasegawa (Dept. of Electric and Electronic System Engineering, Saitama University)

Received: 26/04/2005
Revised: 27/07/2005
Accepted: 09/09/2005

Abstract: This paper describes a new MAC protocol for integrated inter-vehicle and road to vehicle communications called VRCP (Vehicle and Road-side Collaborative MAC Protocol) that achieve high performance in communications. The VRCP uses two channels. In the VRCP, RVC is used for both the access control of IVC and data communications. For the performance evaluations, the autonomous cruising traffic simulator considering the shadowing effect is employed to investigate in realistic traffic conditions. Simulation results show that the performances of the VRCP in the case of using RVC for access control of IVC and another case of using RVC for both the access control of IVC and data communication. In particular, the VRCP can achieve high performance by using RVC for compensate the data of IVC even in the shadowing conditions, compared to the conventional IVC by contention access scheme.

Keywords: Inter-vehicle communications, Road to vehicle communications, Medium access control protocol


Number: 03-17
Type: Regular
Pages: 49-57
Title: Detection of Unmapped Road Links by Utilizing Off-Link Probe Data
Author(s): Rui Wang (Chubu Branch, Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd.)
Hideki Nakamura (Department of Civil Engineering, Nagoya University)
Nobushige Izu (Development Department, Toyota Mapmaster Inc.)

Received: 06/05/2005
Revised: 20/07/2005, 16/09/2005
Accepted: 20/09/2005

Abstract: In this paper, a practical method is proposed to use probe data for detecting locations of possible unmapped links automatically. Firstly probe data are matched to an existing road network based on their distances to links. If the distance is greater than a threshold value, the data is identified as an off-link data. Then a Probability Scoring System (PSS) is developed for categorizing the off-link probe data into three groups “Facility”, “Noise” and “Link”. A ranking method is finally developed for automatic outputting the locations with the highest possibility of unmapped links. Case studies in some areas are provided as evaluations of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Probe data, Digital road map, Unmapped link detection


Number: 03-18
Pages: 59-68
Title: Study on Service Characteristics of Demand Responsive Transport using Sequential Demand Assignment Algorithm
Author(s): Fumitaka Kurauchi (Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University)
Kiyotaka Ueshima (Department of Urban Management, Kyoto University)
Yasunori Iida (Emeritus Professor, Kyoto University)

Received: 08/05/2005
Revised: 15/07/2005, 18/09/2005
Accepted: 20/09/2005

Abstract: Through recent developments in information and communication technologies, dynamic monitoring and control of transport systems are technically possible. These technologies enable constructing more flexible and cost-effective transport services which may vary base on demand. This study proposes an introduction of demand responsive transport (DRT) services as unlimited public transport services. To explore the effectiveness of DRT systems, a sequential passenger assignment algorithm for DRT is created. The algorithm is applied to the test network, and the service performance of DRT is discussed.

Keywords: Demand Responsive Transport, Service Evaluation, Demand Assignment Algorithm